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Shoes are footwear designed to completely cover the foot.
They provide ease of commuting and guard the foot against hazards on the ground that people tend to walk onto more of than not.
Shoes have evolved from being simply foot guards to a fashion statement. Shoes speak volumes about one’s ethos, culture, nationality, environment, and station in life.
Also, shoes are now being designed for specific purposes such as running, climbing, skiing, or very specific people such as heels for women, walking shoes for arthritic people, etc.
The process of construction of a shoe is a highly sophisticated process in recent times. A shoe is made up of no less than thirty different parts using several advanced materials.
Detailed anatomy of a shoe is given in the next section.
Anatomy of a Shoe
The anatomy of the shoe is made of the toe cap, upper, heel, sole, shank, welt, and waist. The upper is made of the vamp, tongue and eyelets, throat, puff, quarters and lining. The sole is divided into three parts- the insole, outsole and the midsole.
The main components of the shoe are:
1. Toe Cap (or) Toe Box
A toe cap or a toe box of a shoe is present at the very front of a shoe. It is a box-like roofed structure that completely covers the toes of the user, thereby protecting them.
A toe cap of a shoe must be wide enough to cover and allow room for the user’s toes.
They also add to giving the shoe a defining structure. The front of the shoe receives a lot of stress, and the toe cap, therefore, adds strength to the front of the shoe.
Toe boxes of various shoes differ in size. While athletes require larger toe boxes, women’s footwear may require smaller ones.
Toe caps of shoes are 1 to 2 millimeters thick and are present between the shoe’s upper and lining.
They are made of leather, plastic or carbon fibre.
Some heavy-duty shoes can also have steel or aluminum toe caps.
2. Upper (or) Shaft
It is the upper part of the shoe that completely covers the upper foot. It consists of all those parts that are above and in front of the sole.
The upper is made very durable and strong. It may also be combined with a mesh to provide air for the feet.
It is generally designed in a very pleasing manner to make the shoe attractive. It holds the shoe over the foot with the help of shoelaces, Velcro, buttons, zippers, etc.
The upper is about 1.2 millimeters thick.
The upper is made of the vamp, tongue and eyelets, throat, puff, quarters and linings.
The vamp starts from the toe cap and extends to the back of the shoe, to the quarter. Its main purpose is to protect the toes of the user. The vamp is also supposed to be very well designed to catch the user’s eye.
The tongue is a very flexible strip of material present in those shoes which employ shoelaces.
It is a strip of material that is present beneath the shoelaces and the quarter of the shoe. It runs from the vamp to the throat of the shoe.
It not only spreads the shoe pressure over the foot but also protects the foot from being grazed by the shoelaces.
Eyelets are also present in shoes which use shoelaces.
They are small holes present on the upper of the shoe through which the shoelaces can be looped through and then knotted to firmly place the shoe on the user’s foot.
The eyelets are punched onto the upper of the shoe. They are rimmed with metal or plastic grommets for the holes to maintain their shape.
They are present behind the vamp.
The quarters cover the sides and back of the foot and surround the opening of the shoe. They go around the heel and meet at the shoe lacing.
They cover those areas of the foot which are not already covered by the vamp.
The quarter and the vamp may be separated or made of a single, continuous material.
The top edges of the quarter are referred to as the top line or collar. It is padded for extra comfort.
It is stiffened with fibreboard or molded plastic. It thus shapes the posterior of the foot, amply supporting it.
Another layer, called the foxing, can be added to the quarter for additional support
The lining is a layer present on the inside of the shoe to support it. The lining is usually stitched in such a way that it is attached to the shoe upper from the inside.
This layer must be very soft and breathable to make the user comfortable within his/ her shoe. Good quality linings extend the lifetime of the shoe.
The throat is present in the shoe upper at the front of the vamp, right behind the toe cap at the main opening of the shoe.
It is right between the central part of the vamp where the shoe lacing is present and a quarter, the different sections being separated by seams. The location of the throat is referred to as the eye stay.
The throat of a shoe defines the maximum girth admitted by the shoe.
It is a puff-like reinforcement given to the upper on the inside of the shoe. It maintains the shape of the toes.
The bottom of the shoe is known as the sole of the shoe. The word “sole” is Latin for soil or ground.
The sole is designed to give the shoe immense durability, even after being scraped over the ground for countless times.
It also must be able to generate enough friction between the shoe and the ground, enabling the user to walk and move around using the shoes.
Shoe soles may be of a simple, one-layer type or may be constructed using multiple layers is an advanced way. They are made from various materials like natural rubber, leather, polyurethane and PVC compounds.
The shoe sole is divided into three main parts- the insole, outsole and the midsole.
The insole of the shoe is the first layer of the sole. It is directly beneath the foot and is attached to the upper of the shoe. It is, therefore, more commonly referred to as the footbed of the shoe.
The insole is contoured and structured to cradle the foot. It is made from comparatively thinner materials like cellulose or paper board.
The insole is compounded with a shock-absorbing material like ethylene vinyl acetate.
Some insoles come with anti-microbial additives that reduce the possibility of bacterial infections and shoe smell.
Some cold-weather shoes and boots come with insulated footbeds.
The insole is responsible for cradling the foot and bolstering it.
Midsole is an optional layer present between the insole and the outsole of the shoe.
It is introduced for better shock absorption and cushioning of the shoe. It is padded with extra support under the heel portion of the shoe since the pressure there is at the maximum.
The outsole of the shoe is the outermost layer of the sole and comes in contact directly with the ground. Thus, the outsole is that component of the shoe that is subject to the most abrasion.
The outsole can be one continuous piece or made from an assembly of various parts.
The outsole can be made from leather, to make it more breathable. However, leather is vulnerable to moisture.
Rubber outsoles provide more protection to the sole but is less attractive.
An ideal outsole is one which is waterproof, tough, appealing and provides enough friction between the shoe and the ground. Often, the outsole is etched with grooves to enhance this friction.
Care must be taken towards the maintenance of the sole of the shoe. Worn-out soles of the shoe must be replaced as soon as possible.
The heel of the shoe is present at the rear of the shoe, at the bottom, just below the heel of the foot. Its main function is to support and/or raise the rear part of the shoe.
The heel is made of a thick, piece of leather or rubber. This piece may be formed by stacks of pieces of leather/ rubber or maybe a hollowed-out platform.
The part of the heel next to the sole, which is shaped neatly the fit under the shoe is called the heel seat or the heel base.
The forward part of the heel, facing the shoe’s fore, is called the heel breast.
The part of the heel that comes into direct contact with the ground is called the top piece, which contributes greatly towards maintaining the friction between the shoe and the ground.
A piece of material which is added to the heel to stiffen it is called the counter or heel cap. It helps to lock the foot in place. The counter is present between the upper and the shoe lining.
The arch and the instep of the foot are collectively called the waist of the foot.
The instep is the curve of the foot between the ankle and the toes. The human foot also has various arches longitudinally and on the interior.
Shank is a piece of metal that is inserted between the insole and the outsole, matching the arch of the foot.
It is added to provide extra propping to the shoe and gives the shoe the desired structure. It also reinforces the waist of the shoe.
The welt is a band of leather that runs around the edges of the upper. It, therefore, joins the upper to the shoe’s sole. It mainly is concerned with holding all the components of the shoe together.
Here is a video talking specifically about the anatomy of a running shoe –
In the end..
So, your simple looking shoe is not so simple after all and has so many components! All these have to be just right to make a perfect shoe!