Best Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis for Men & Women

  • How We Decided

    26 products considered

    • 1,600+ reviews analysed, 22 research hours spent, 20+ info. sources referred


Dress shoes are widely used by people, both men, and women, for both casual and formal events. They are extremely popular to be worn at parties, dances, and special occasions.

Oxfords and ballet flats are some such examples of dress shoes. They also include high heels, monk shoes, loafers, sandals, etc.

Dress shoes, however, can be extremely uncomfortable, especially if you are suffering from Plantar Fasciitis and spend too long wearing them.

However, there are special dress shoes made for people with Plantar Fasciitis that can provide comfort and support to your feet.

Why you need Special Dress Shoes if you have Plantar Fasciitis

Why you need Special Dress Shoes if you have Plantar Fasciitis

Dress shoes lack the necessary arch and heel support for your foot. They have an extremely narrow toe box that exerts increased pressure on the foot and can be uncomfortable and painful. Special dress shoes for Plantar Fasciitis provide ample cushioning, protection, and support for your feet.

Dress shoes can be extremely painful if you have plantar fasciitis. Dress shoes often lack the necessary arch support making your feet susceptible to injury and overpronation, making the condition of Plantar Fasciitis worse.

Dress shoes also have a narrow toe box, both in men’s and women’s shoes, which leads to increased pressure on the foot.

Increased pressure not only strains the muscles in the feet but also make both walking and standing uncomfortable and painful. It can also adversely affect their knees and lower back.

Men’s dress shoes are almost always made of leather soles. While the stiffness that they provide can be good for Plantar Fasciitis, they are not the most comfortable pair of shoes.

Women’s dress shoes, on the other hand, have very slim soles and fail to provide stability, balance, or comfort.

Special dress shoes for Plantar fasciitis keeps all of these lacks into consideration and provide ample cushioning, proper arch and heel support, and stability and balance for a firm footing.

Comparing Top Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis for Men & Women

Here is a quick comparison of the best dress shoes for plantar fasciitis available in the market today –

Best for Men

Product Material Sole Price

Dockers Men’s Dress Shoe

Dockers Men's Gordon Leather Oxford Dress Shoe

Best Overall, 2,800+ Reviews

Leather Leather Check Price

Rockport Men's World Tour Classic

Rockport Men's World Tour Classic

Runner's Up, 2,500+ Reviews

Leather Synthetic Check Price

OLUKAI Men‘s Moloa

OLUKAI Men's Moloa

Leather Leather Check Price

Marino Oxford Men‘s Dress Shoes

Marino Oxford Dress Shoes for Men - Formal Leather Mens Shoes

Leather Leather Check Price

Orthofeet Comfortable Men's Dress Shoe

Orthofeet Plantar Fasciitis Heel Pain Relief Arch Support Orthopedic Diabetic Mens Loafers Dress Shoes Gramercy

Leather Rubber Check Price

Orthofeet Avery Island Men’s Shoe

Orthofeet Plantar Fasciitis Relief Arch Support Orthopedic Diabetic Mens Casual Walking Shoes Avery Island

Leather Rubber Check Price

Dr. Comfort Wing Men‘s Dress Shoe

Dr. Comfort Wing Men's Therapeutic Diabetic Extra Depth Dress Shoe Leather Lace

Leather Leather Check Price
Best for Women
Product Material Sole Price

Vionic Women's Sydney Slip-on Loafer

Vionic Womens Sydney Flat Driver

Best Overall

Hair Calf Leather Rubber Check Price

Vionic Women's Spark Minna Ballet Flat

Vionic Women's Spark Minna Ballet Flat

Leather Leather Check Price

Naot Women's Luma Dress Pump

Naot Women's Luma Black Madras Lthr Combo Maryjane Heel 10 M US

Leather Leather Check Price

Buying Guide Best Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis

Buying Guide Best Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis

The key parameters to consider while buying the best dress shoes for Plantar Fasciitis are flexibility and space in the toe box, firm heel counters, deep heel cups in men’s shoes, length and style of heels in women’s footwear, rigid midsole, contoured footbed, and a firm closure system.

Flexibility and Space in the Toe Box

A narrow or tapered toe box does not provide enough space for your toes to flex. In addition to smashing them all together, it can also put additional pressure on the toes and feet.

This will cause the arch muscles to stay in a stretched position.

It will also cause the arteries and nerves, held between the bones, to be compressed, thereby restricting blood circulation, and promoting the degenerative process of Plantar Fasciitis.

A flexible and spacious toe box in dress shoes should be a prerequisite for both men and women with Plantar Fasciitis.

Firm Heel Counter

The firm heel counter is a must in the dress shoes for both women and men. Firm heel counters support the arch and heel and prevent overpronation.

Excessive pronation may cause strain on the plantar fascia, making the condition even worse. They may also cause the ankle to go inwards, causing further foot and hip pain.

Moreover, with plantar fasciitis, the natural footpad gets weaker.

Shoes with firm heel counters provide sufficient support to the heel and arches. It also helps in providing a firm and stable footing.

Length of Heels

This parameter is specifically for women who want to dress shoes for Plantar Fasciitis. The decision regarding size and style of heels to be worn when you Plantar Fasciitis can be very tricky.

Usually, it is believed that heels are never a good idea if you have Plantar Fasciitis.

However, most podiatrists recommend shoes with a 1-2 inches heel, as it helps in aligning your foot.

Completely flat shoes, on the other hand, provide no support, adversely affecting our foot pain due to the impact of the movement.

Heels that are too high can also adversely affect your condition. High heels can shorten your calf muscle permanently, making them tight and painful.

This also prevents easy movement of your legs thereby straining them unnecessarily.

Ideally, you should buy shoes with heels that are no taller than the balls of your foot. Platform style heels are good for providing firm support to the feet and heels.

Rigid Midsole

You should ideally go for dress shoes that have a rigid midsole. The soles should be sufficiently rigid not to bend or twist in the midsole section.

Shoes with supportive soles not only protect your feet but also help in controlling the range of motion required for every step, taking care of your joints, ligaments, and bones, by preventing any unnecessary motion.

In addition to providing increased stability typically, thicker midsoles have also been known to reduce the plantar sensation.

Closure System

Dress shoes with a good closure system like a lace or velcro strap mean that you can ensure a tight fit for your feet.

If the shoes move around too much, they will not be in the right position for walking and can affect your posture as well as foot alignment.

Moreover, a closure system ensures that your feet do not slip out of position. This reduces the possibility of injury and prevents incorrect positioning of the foot.

Contoured Footbed

Contoured footbeds are a must have in the dress shoes for men with Plantar Fasciitis.

They promote a healthy alignment of the feet by allowing for an even distribution of weight across the feet rather than putting excessive pressure on the heels.

Additionally, the contoured footbed also provides a layer of support and cushioning to your feet, and provide good shock absorption from the impact of the movement.

Deep Heel Cup

Deep heel cup in men’s dress shoe is a significant feature. They help in cradling the heel and redistributed pressure across the feet.

Deep heel cups also provide padding that keeps your heel comfortable and adds stability to movement.

Deep heel cups in shoes also help by raising your feet to relieve tension and provide extra cushioning.

Are Flat Dress Shoes Good for Plantar Fasciitis

Are Flat Dress Shoes Good for Plantar Fasciitis

Flat dress shoes are not good for Plantar Fasciitis as they lack proper support for the heels and arches of the feet, and lack proper cushioning. This results in excessive pressure on your heels, an uneven distribution of weight on the foot, and increased impact of any movement, making the condition worse.

If you have Plantar Fasciitis, flat shoes can be detrimental for the health of your feet.

Contrary to popular belief flat shoes are as damaging for your feet as high heels, especially if you have Plantar Fasciitis, and can lead to aggravated pain and a worsening of the condition.

Flat dress shoes provide no support or cushioning for the feet and often come with extremely thin or even no soles that are susceptible to wear and tear quite soon.

They also do not provide any support to the arches of your feet. Thereby causing uneven distribution of your weight on the feet, and creating an increased impact of movement on the heels and arches of your feet.

Lack of proper support can further strain or flatten your feet making the condition worse.

Flat dress shoes moreover lack a rigid sole and have no mechanism to restrict the movement of the feet inside the shoe.

This can cause slippage, making your feet prone to injury. They can also lead to increased friction in the heels, Achilles tendon, and toes, resulting in blisters and callouses.

Flat dress shoes furthermore prevent proper alignment of the feet, often leading to hip and back pain while aggravating the pain caused due to plantar fasciitis.

Plantar Fasciitis Insoles for Dress Shoes

Plantar Fasciitis Insoles for Dress Shoes

Dress shoes usually come with minimum cushioning and extremely rigid soles, making them uncomfortable and unsupportive.

Plantar Fasciitis insoles that are specifically designed for dress shoes have a slim profile to fit easily inside these compact shoes and provide support, comfort, and protection to your feet.

While men’s dress shoes are mostly made of rigid leather causing it to be extremely uncomfortable, women’s dress shoes including heels and flats lack support and protection for the feet and can aggravate the condition along with causing severe pain.

Dress shoes also usually come with minimum low-volume cushioning, whether it be men’s oxford shoes or women’s heels or ballet flats.

Insoles assist in providing support and comfort to the foot by providing an additional layer of cushioning, reducing foot slippage, improving arch support and facilitating better foot positioning.

Dress shoes are usually tighter than most other shoes and have less room for inserting insoles.

Therefore, the insoles needed to fit into a dress shoe requires a slim profile without compromising on the support and comfort. They are usually made of leather or soft topcoat material to provide comfort.

Insoles for dress shoes are typically used when you have to stand or walk for an extended period of time.

They provide comfort, support, enhance balance control, and aid heel pain caused to excessive strain on the foot. They further help in spreading the weight of the body evenly across the length of the foot.

Benefits of Plantar Fasciitis Dress Shoes

Benefits of Plantar Fasciitis Dress Shoes

Plantar fasciitis dress shoes have several benefits. They help in the proper alignment of your foot and provide stability and balance to your movement. The support and comfort provided by plantar fasciitis dress shoes can further alleviate the symptoms and assist the recovery process.

Plantar fasciitis dress shoes can be extremely beneficial for people in providing support to the arches and heels of your feet and relieving the subsequent pain.

Plantar fasciitis dress shoes come with additional arch support and a contoured footbed.

They help in evenly distributing the pressure across your feet and aligning the feet, which additionally helps in improving your posture and providing proper balance and stability.

The support helps in further alleviating the pain and preventing further damage.

The arch support in plantar fasciitis dress shoes prevents your arches from collapsing by supporting them. This not only helps to alleviate the symptoms but also assists in the recovery process.

The contoured footbed further provides an added layer of cushioning and helps in absorbing the shock of movement and impact on the ground.

Plantar fasciitis dress shoes also come with the feature of a rigid midsole. This prevents any slippage and subsequent injury providing stability and balance to your movement.

Deep heel cups, that are a prominent feature of plantar fasciitis dress shoes, cradle your heels and relieve any excessive pressure on the heels.

They also lift your foot to allow for an easy blood circulation across the feet which helps in reducing stress and pain.

Stylish Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis for Women

Stylish Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis for Women

Stylish dress shoes for plantar fasciitis includes many options for women. Some of these include unicorn shoes, ankle boots, Dansko shoes, and mule shoes. In addition to comfort and support, they are very stylish and versatile.

Plantar fasciitis should not discourage you from being trendy and following your style.

In fact, there is a range of shoes that would adhere to both your style and at the same time provide comfort and support to your feet against the pain of Plantar Fasciitis.

It is possible to have stylish shoes that provide arch support, cushioning, shock absorbing outsoles, and deeper heel cups.

Unicorn shoes are one such example. They provide excellent arch support with their extended arch and also have ample cushioning to cradle your heels and reduce the impact of the movement.

Ankle boots are also a stylish yet comfortable option. They provide good arch support and come with a rigid midsole that minimizes torque.

It is super versatile and can be used formally at work, or casually, or with an evening dress.

Dansko shoes are a good option if you are looking for a heel lift and sufficient cushioning. They usually come with memory foam footbed which provides added comfort.

Mule shoes also provide motion control and firm grounding along with ample cushioning. The closed toe counter provides additional protection.

FAQs

1. What are Dress Shoes?

They are shoes that are worn at a formal or semi-formal event and are usually contrasted against athletic shoes. They are widely used for dances, parties, and other special occasions. They come in various styles for both men and women including oxford shoes, monk shoes, pumps, and boots.

2. What kind of Footbed should I Look for in my Dress Shoe?

If you have plantar fasciitis, you need to have a contoured footbed which will provide both protection and support to your feet. Dress shoes with memory foam footbeds are highly recommended as they are designed to absorb heel shock and also improves stability.

3. Is it Possible to Insert Insoles in my Dress Shoe?

Though dress shoes are extremely tight-fit and have little extra space, it is possible to put insoles inside them. Dress shoe insoles are specifically designed to be slim and small so that they can be easily inserted within your shoe. They are typically made of leather or soft topcoat material for added comfort and stability.

4. Are Flats a Good Shoe Option for Plantar fasciitis?

Contrary to popular belief, flats are not a good shoe option if you have Plantar fasciitis. They provide no arch support or cushioning, and often increase the impact of the movement. They are also not good at providing stability and may cause friction in your heels making the condition worse.

5. Are Heels a Good Shoe Option for Plantar Fasciitis?

While it is true that flats are detrimental for Plantar fasciitis, heels are also not always a good option. High heels tend to permanently shorten your calf muscles putting excessive strain on your plantar fascia. However, a 1-2 inch heel, possibly a comfortable wedge or platform heel is usually recommended by doctors.

Reviews of the Best Dress Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis

Check out the reviews of the top dress shoes available in the market today.

Dockers Men’s Gordon Leather Oxford Dress Shoe

Dockers Men's Gordon Leather Oxford Dress Shoe

The Dockers brand has been around since 1986. The market-leading company has a wide portfolio of stylish, affordable footwear and accessories and is based in Nashville, Tennessee, United States.

There are many things to love about Dockers Gordon leather dress shoe. It is stylish, affordable and very comfortable to walk in.

The upper part of the shoe is made of polished full-grain leather, giving it an attractive classic look.

The slightly padded collar helps improve the shoe’s comfort, while the durable rubber outsole ensures maximum traction on all types of terrain (wet or dry).

This supportive shoe also offers the arch support that people with plantar fasciitis and other foot injury need. It comes in four different colors to choose from – black, cordovan, tan burnished, and black tumbled.

Dockers Men’s Gordon Leather Oxford Dress Shoe

PROS:

  • Fits well
  • Looks great
  • Comfortable to wear
  • Removable insole

CONS:

  • Not super durable
  • Poor quality laces
  • Comes apart after a few months of use

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Rockport Men’s World Tour Classic

Rockport Men's World Tour Classic

Rockport grew from a small father-son business to become one of the most popular footwear brands in the world.

The company claims to have drawn on years-long shoemaking experience to merge sophisticated casual styles with the ultimate comfort of athletic shoes.

Innovative comfort features and style combine in this casual-looking dress shoe from Rockport. It has an easy-wipe imported leather upper with a roomy toe box which allows you to freely move your toes left, right and center.

The padded tongue and collar help prevent blisters, while the breathable polyurethane cushioning on the inside enhances odor resistance and absorption of moisture.

Other nice things about this shoe are the EVA midsole that is as flexible as it is lightweight and the rugged rubber outsole which offers stability and good traction no matter the type of terrain.

One more thing, it comes with a stylish lace-up closure that enables you to get an adjustable, glove-like fit.

PROS:

  • Built to last
  • Fits as expected
  • Nice style
  • Comfortable
  • Lightweight

CONS:

  • Poor quality laces
  • Could use more cushioning

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Vionic Women’s Sydney Slip-on Loafer

Vionic Womens Sydney Flat Driver

Vionic is one of the most recommended brands in the footwear and accessory world. The US-based company has a large collection of stylish shoes loved and trusted by fashionable people all around the world.

This dress shoe is an ideal choice for women who are not willing to sacrifice style for comfort.

It has a smooth leather upper featuring a penny strap and metal logo adornment which helps give the loafer a modern touch and appeal.

One big plus is the included orthotic footbed that aligns the feet for greater shock absorption.

The slip-on design allows for easy off and on, while the durable rubber outsole delivers excellent shock absorption and good traction on all types of surfaces.

Although not the most supportive shoe out there, Vionic Sydney loafer offers a good amount of arch support that can help ease the discomfort of plantar fasciitis injury.

Vionic Womens Sydney Flat Driver

PROS:

  • Multiple color options
  • Looks good
  • Decent arch support
  • Lightweight

CONS:

  • Wears quickly
  • Narrow toe box

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Orthofeet Comfortable Gramercy Men’s Dress Shoe

Orthofeet Plantar Fasciitis Heel Pain Relief Arch Support Orthopedic Diabetic Mens Loafers Dress Shoes Gramercy

Orthofeet is a major brand of footwear and accessories founded 35 years ago. The American company offers a line of good-quality shoes known for their top-level comfort, durability, and performance.

Stay 100% comfortable while looking your best with this cute design from Orthofeet.

The shoe comes with a non-binding leather upper and padded seam-free interior lining that minimizes the pressure on the joints while giving you a super-soft feel.

Included is a replaceable contoured insole with anatomical arch support and deep heel cup which molds to the bends and curves of the feet as you walk.

It’s wide, deep toe box gives your feet plenty of rooms to spread and relax, while its ortho-cushioning gel system helps soften and add spring to every step.

Other good features are the lightweight EVA midsole and the shock-absorbing rubber outsole that maintains great traction on all terrains.

Orthofeet Proven Pain Relief Plantar Fasciitis Orthopedic Comfortable Diabetic Flat Feet Gramercy Men's Dress Shoes

PROS:

  • Good arch support
  • Roomy toe box
  • Lightweight and comfortable
  • Relieves foot pain
  • Solid construction

CONS:

  • It runs small
  • Expensive

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Orthofeet Avery Island Men’s Shoe

Orthofeet Plantar Fasciitis Relief Arch Support Orthopedic Diabetic Mens Casual Walking Shoes Avery Island

Here is another great comfortable dress shoe for people with plantar fasciitis. It has a soft, non-binding leather upper with a deep, wide toe box which gives your foot enough room to spread naturally.

This cute shoe includes a premium removable insole with metatomical arch support and deep heel seat for optimal shock absorption and support.

One impressive feature is the easy-gait ortho-cushioning system that helps reduce the pressure on the joints, improves stability and facilitates natural foot movements.

Orthofeet Avery Island shoe comes with a fast lace-up closure for adjustable, personalized fit and a long-lasting rubber outsole with good traction on wet and dry terrains.

PROS:

  • Provides good arch support
  • Better Cushioning
  • Very comfortable
  • Fits well
  • Spacious toe box
  • Comes with a replaceable orthotic insole

CONS:

  • Could be more durable

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Dr. Comfort Wing Men‘s Dress Shoe

Dr. Comfort Wing Men's Therapeutic Diabetic Extra Depth Dress Shoe Leather Lace

Dr. Comfort is a leading manufacturer of comfortable footwear for those living with foot conditions that affect their everyday life. The American company was established in 2002 and based in Mequon, Wisconsin.

Go to formal occasions and social gatherings in style and comfort with this beautifully-crafted shoe from Dr. Comfort.

It is constructed with 100% durable leather that prevents skin irritations while keeping the feet comfortable all day long.

One great addition is the premium quality insole that you can easily replace with your own orthotics.

The padded, well-cushioned interior guarantees additional comfort, while the traditional lace-up closure helps secure the shoe to your feet, preventing slip-ups.

It is a good dress shoe for people dealing with plantar fasciitis, bunions toes and many more.

PROS:

  • Offers superior arch support
  • Stylish and attractive
  • Comfortable to wear
  • Provides foot pain relief
  • Fits well

CONS:

  • Not very durable
  • Wears out sooner than expected

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Vionic Women’s Spark Minna Ballet Flat

Vionic Women's Spark Minna Ballet Flat

Here is another comfortable dress shoe for women battling with plantar fasciitis or other foot conditions. It has a soft leather or suede upper highlighted with accents and bows for a stylish finish.

Perfect for work or formal night-outs, this cute shoe features a cork covered EVA footbed which provides exceptional shock absorption and support.

Also included is a cushioned, moisture-wicking liner that prevents foot odor. Plus, it comes with an orthoheel technology which helps align the foot to its natural position.

Vionic Women's Spark Minna Ballet Flat

PROS:

  • Great fit
  • Comfortable on the feet
  • Excellent arch support
  • Looks elegant

CONS:

  • Expensive
  • A few reviewers reported durability issues

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Marino Oxford Men‘s Dress Shoes

Marino Oxford Dress Shoes for Men - Formal Leather Mens Shoes

Launched as a ratchet belt manufacturer a couple of years ago, Marino has now spread its wing deep into the footwear and apparel industry.

The company claims to stand for bringing innovative, affordable products to the market.

Crafted by top designers in the industry, this sleek and modern dress shoe is a popular choice among those with plantar fasciitis or other foot problems.

It has a genuine leather upper and a rugged slip-resistant rubber sole designed to keep you going for a long while.

The meticulous stitching helps improve durability, while the lace-up closure system allows you to customize the fit as you please.

What’s more, Marino Oxford dress shoe goes well with formal or casual outfits, thanks to its sophisticated, elegant look.

And it is supportive and stylish enough for people who want to keep looking their best while nursing a plantar fasciitis injury.

Marino Oxford Dress Shoes for Men - Formal Leather Mens Shoes

PROS:

  • Has an awesome fit
  • Looks nice
  • Reasonably priced
  • Multiple color and size options
  • Comfortable

CONS:

  • Narrow toe box
  • Wears quickly (not long-lasting)

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

OLUKAI Men‘s Moloa

OLUKAI Men's Moloa

While OLUKAI may not be a very popular brand in the footwear world, they are however one of the industry’s most trusted manufacturers of good quality shoes and boots loved by fashionable people all around the world.

This collapsible-back shoe also makes a great choice for people with heel pain or plantar fasciitis injury.

It comes with plenty of innovative comfort and protective features, including a contoured microfiber-topped footbed for superior arch support and non-marking rubber traction pads for a firm grip on any surface.

It also has a deep, wide toe box, making it a good choice for those with wide feet.

The shoe’s heel delivers excellent shock absorption which ensures you are comfortable even after standing for a long time.

One last thing, it features a fold-down heel counter that will allow you to wear it as a slide or slip-on shoe.

OLUKAI Men's Moloa

PROS:

  • Comfortable
  • Light on the feet
  • Good-looking shoe
  • Offers decent arch support
  • Fits well

CONS:

  • Could be more supportive
  • A few reviewers complained that it runs too large

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

Naot Women’s Luma Dress Pump

Naot Women's Luma Black Madras Lthr Combo Maryjane Heel 10 M US

Based in Israel, NAOT is a top footwear brand that was launched in a one-room workshop back in the 1940s. The now renowned company offers a large collection of shoes that will allow you to walk in a world of comfort.

NAOT Luma dress pump is designed to let women, including those with plantar fasciitis, walk comfortably and confidently all through the day.

It comes with a deep, roomy toe box and a removable padded anatomical footbed that contours to the shape of the wearer’s foot for a snug, customized fit.

At the instep of the shoe is a hook and strap that offers adjustability, while the deep heel cup protects the heel bone and improves stability.

This elegant Maryjane shoe provides good arch support which helps distribute the stress on the joints, ensuring comfortable, surefooted steps no matter how far you walk.

PROS:

  • Comfortable and supportive
  • Removable footbed
  • It fits perfectly
  • Stylish design
  • Deep toe box

CONS:

  • A bit pricey
  • Could use more cushioning in the metatarsal area

Check Reviews & Price on Amazon

In the end..

Taking care of plantar fasciitis is important and the right shoes can play an important part in it.

here is the list of best dress shoes for plantar fasciitis again for you, check out the specs, reviews, prices and offers on Amazon by clicking on the links –

Last update on 2019-09-20 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Last Updated on

ReviewsWorthy Team

Our team consists of enthusiastic and passionate people from different fields and experience. Some are geeks and spend most of their time among gadgets while others love nature and are always on the move! We spend 10s of hours researching and writing on each topic. The articles are then quality checked by our editors. View our "About us" section for more details about process and team.

We will be happy to hear your thoughts

Leave a reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: